Scientists at Scripps Research and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research have discovered a unique cell type that resides in the central nervous system and is essential for oral health.
As reported by the researchers at Internet Information on April 12, 2022, a new type of salivary gland cell called an “ionocyte” works to maintain the health of the charged molecules – ions – of clay, calcium, chlorine, and other electrolytes in saliva. Scientists have also found that this type of ionocyte secretes a large growth factor (fibroblast growth factor 10, or FGF10), suggesting that it is also responsible for the repair of salivary cells after injury.
“These are unique systems, and we believe by educating them we can develop more effective drugs for treating salivary glands and connective tissues such as tear skins, ”said the study’s lead author Helen Makarenkova, Ph.D. associate professor in the Department of Molecular Medicine at Scripps Research.
Salivary glands produce saliva, which makes it easier for animals to eat. Saliva contains enzymes that help reduce inflammation, antibodies and other antibodies to prevent disease, and a good regulation of various ions that maintain the overall health of teeth and teeth. with oral muscles. The gastrointestinal tract can be damaged by medications associated with cancer of the head and neck and other medical conditions including autoimmune diseases.
“Every year, millions of Americans are diagnosed with dry mouth conditions, the exact causes of which are unclear,” said lead author Olivier Mauduit, Ph.D., a postdoctoral researcher at the Makarenkova lab. .
The team, along with lead author Matthew Hoffman, Ph.D., of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, first invested in a growth protein called FGF10, which is critical to the development. first of the salivary glands, that is. which is supposed to protect and repair the salivary glands of the parents. The goal of the scientists was to determine which cells secrete FGF10 in the saliva of adults.
The team synthesized single large atlases of mouse function, and isolated FGF10-expressing cells to monitor gene expression. In this way, they found that while mesenchymal cells called fibroblasts release FGF10 in very young mice, a very different cell type – a type of salivary duct -lining epithelial cell – takes on the role of beginning in the second week of life.
The researchers showed that this epithelial cell that produces FGF10 has molecular markers that indicate that it is an ionocyte, an evolutionarily ancient cell type that maintains appropriate levels of ions and molecules associated with internal tissues.
Among the products of this ionocyte, they find, is cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR). This protein is best known as a cause of cystic fibrosis if it does not pass into the lungs through transplantation. However, it is found to be important in salivary and tear gas, where its deficiency contributes to a common, inflammatory, dry-mouth / eye syndrome called Sjögren’s syndrome. Knowing how cellulite releases CFTR into the salivary gland could lead to the best treatments for this disease, the researchers said.
The researchers also found that this FGF10 activity of the new ionocyte was found to be unique among ions.
“The fact that this system is the active ingredient of FGF10 in adult rats suggests that it can play an important role in the management and recovery after trauma,” said author Vanessa Delcroix, Ph.D. D., a postdoctoral researcher at the Makarenkova Laboratory.
Although their first study was in mice, the researchers found expressions of salivary gland ionocytes in a protein atlas of human tissue.
Researchers are continuing with more research, including human cells. Their hope is to better understand how these FGF10 -producing ionocytes work in the salivary gland to prepare the way for effective treatments for conditions related to salivary glands and salivary glands. tear gas, because of the many similarities between the two.
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Helen P. Makarenkova & collegaues, A mesenchymal to epithelial mutation in Fgf10 describes an evolutionary-controlled population of ionocytes in the salivary gland, Internet Information (2022). DOI: 10.1016 / j.celrep.2022.110663. www.cell.com/cell-reports/full… 2211-1247 (22) 00415-6
Presented by The Scripps Research Institute
Directions: New Cell Type Found Key to Restoring Damaged Skin (2022, April 12) Retrieved 12 April 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-04 -newly-cell-key-salivary-glands.html
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