Like humans, bacteria have other immune systems that fight off pathogens such as diseases. These immune systems often degrade the DNA of pathogens to nothing. In the research team assisted by Professor Daan Swarts from the Laboratory of Biochemistry at Wageningen University & Research, a new defense system was identified that uses a different technique for invader neutralization. The information was published in a scientific journal Phone.
It is in our body that the hand race is constantly running. On the one hand, viral infections are constantly looking for new ways to enter our cells, and on the other hand, our bodies are constantly evolving with better immune systems to eradicate these diseases. This would keep them sick and healthy. The hand race between bacterial pathogens and their pathogenic ‘invaders’: pathogens and plasmids is decided.
In an article in a science journal Phone, Ph.D. Candidate Bel Koopal from the research team Daan Swarts explains a new defensive approach to this hand race. Scientists are developing a new type of bacterium called “Argonaut proteins,” after detecting infected DNA, with the intention of breaking down whole molecules with the eloquent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) name.+).
Very secure on the phone
Argonaute proteins are found in multicellular organisms such as plants and humans, but in unicellular organisms such as bacteria. These Argonautes are designed with a small string of “lead RNA” or “Lead DNA” to search for invasive RNA or DNA with the same sequence. In most cases, the victim is killed by cutting him or her into small, harmless pieces. While the Argonaut protein uses Swarts ’research to lead RNA, it protects in a different way: after detecting invasive DNA, it completely binds to the cell by breaking down the cell. NAD.+.
Wash the disease
The NAD+ The molecule plays an important role in the metabolism of the cells and controls the flow of the speech engine so that it can sustain the life of a cell. “Without NAD+the cell is going to die, “explains Swarts. By letting the infected cell die, the attacker is unable to spread or spread the bacteria nearby. The bacterium cell is dedicated to be killed. saves other healthy cells. “
This immune system is available to all kinds of bacteria. Swarts is not surprised that these unicellular materials have complex immune systems. “People often underestimate the nature of the bacteria,” he says. “Because of the large number of small bacteria, their immune systems have grown over millions of years and have grown exponentially.
“In the future, we will be able to detect diseases in the human body using this kind of genetic tool,” says Daan Swarts.
Swarts, Koopal and their colleagues led the research out of a scientific desire to understand the functions of Argonaut proteins. However, Swarts believes this new information will have potential applications in the long run. For example, the research team showed that the immune system can be isolated and then reconstituted with a string of selective RNA lead. According to NAD+ degradation can be easily detected, the Argonaute protein can be used to detect specific DNA sequences in order. “In the future, we will be able to detect diseases in the human body using this kind of genetic tool,” Swarts said. “But we weren’t there. For the time being, we were motivated by basic knowledge.”
Last line of defense: How to prevent bacterial populations from infections
Balwina Koopal et al, Short Argonaut prokaryotic systems that initiate cell death by detecting infected DNA, Phone (2022). DOI: 10.1016 / j.cell.2022.03.012
Presented by Wageningen University
Directions: New immune system found in bacteria (2022, April 4) Retrieved 5 April 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-04-immune-bacteria.html
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