The law of sabotage determines the development of the mammalian embryo

The law of sabotage determines the development of the mammalian embryo

Mouse embryos treated with DNA damage showed significantly lower DNA damage response (red) during zygotic genome activation (2 cell stage, left) compared with a later developmental stage (16 cell stage). , right). The nucleus cell is painted blue. Photo: Barbara Pernaute / CRG

Genetic mutation is a basic biological process that allows cells to produce different mRNAs and proteins from a number of genes. For many animals, including humans, it is a necessary model for the development of complex cells such as muscles or neurons.

Its main focus is to implement a very consistent process. But there is a new study published today in the journal Scientific advances there has been evidence of further splicing treatment, which rarely goes wrong in healthy cells, goes haywire in an unexpected place – the cells of a new embryo.

Researchers at the Center for Genomic Regulation (CRG) in Barcelona found that after creating an atlas of splicing events during the early development of cattle, humans and mice.

They found that when human embryos were only 8 bundles, they exhibited a large number of different mRNAs, so the splicing difference was the highest recorded in the cells or cells. Which is learned to this day. As the embryos moved to the next stage of development, splicing returned to normal.

According to the authors of the study, this indicates that the regulation of other splicing fails at a critical stage of development called zygotic genome activation. This is when an early embryo changes from using maternal resources such as proteins and RNA and makes its own.

More importantly, the researchers believe the new discovery was meant to be because it was planned – a basic act of sabotage. “We think this will be done because there are instructions in our genome that tell certain genes not to do their job at that developmental stage. Manuel Irimia, lead author of the study study.

An important clue as to why the splicing regulation does not fail at this critical point lies in the activity of the bound proteins. The researchers found that splicing failure destroyed proteins responsible for responding to DNA damage.

“We found that the DNA damage response was low at this stage of development. While splicing failure is not the only reason for this type of defense, it is also responsible for the destruction of associated proteins. Because transcription itself carries the damage of DNA.When embryos awaken their genome for the first time and begin to write, there may be trade-offs to the point. to prevent a lack of growth, “said Dr. Barbara Pernaute, postdoctoral researcher at CRG and lead author of the study.

Dr.’s place. Pernaute, these results improve our understanding of how embryos develop at these early stages and could open the door to improvements in reproductive technologies.

The data could be used to advance research into the production of totipotent cells from stem cells, a long -term concept for new medicine. Although these early embryonic cells are true totipotent cells, mechanical knowledge could lead to progress in converting stem cell mechanisms to promote totiponcy.

“Recent studies done by other research groups around the world have shown an improvement in the way we have seen in our research transform stem cells into totipotent cells. officer for the importance of this approach to biological processes, ”said Drs. Irimia.


RNA maturation is responsible for physical development in mammals


More information:
Christopher DR Wyatt et al, The failure of planned splicing was developed to help disrupt the DNA response during the development of the mammalian zygotic genome, Scientific advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126 / sciadv.abn4935

Presented by Center for Genomic Regulation

Directions: Law of sabotage in mammalian embryonic development (2022, April 13) Retrieved 13 April 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-04-sabotage-mammalian- embryonic.html

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