Despite their reputation as living mammals, poisonous tail lizards have continued to be evolutionarily nimble – especially in the development of a poisonous drug to ward off the rise of mammal thieves. A new genetic analysis of the role of sour tails shows new evolutionary stages and may be a real benefit for researchers studying the benefits of sour tails on human health.
A team of earth researchers led by biologists from the University of Wisconsin-Madison compiled the largest evolutionary tree of lizard-tailed lizards, showing seven unique events in which eight-legged lizards grew. Eight are poisonous to mammals.
“The last major changes to their physical structure, their morphology, took place about 430 million years ago, when they left the water and moved to land,” Carlos said. Santibáñez-López, a former postdoctoral researcher at UW-Madison and lead author of the new study published today in the journal System Biology. “But we see now that they’ve grown in important ways now and then.”
With the help of colleagues around the world, Santibáñez-López collected specimens showing 100 acidic tail species and extracted their acidic acid samples from RNA samples, a reference to extracted from DNA to tell cells what proteins (such as death) to make. By collecting RNA immediately after the poisonous tail lizards were killed, Santibáñez-López was able to look at the genes that actively produce the poisonous lizards and the poisonous tail lizard that filled his lethal supplies.
Constructing a family tree based on the differences in bitterness, researchers can see that the two lizards were divided into two large families about 300 million years ago – Buthidae and Iuridae, which breeds 22 families of bitter -tailed lizards – that division has come about more than ever before. A poisonous tail lizard that has developed poisonous predators looking at mammals. And for good reason: There’s nothing sweet to talk about.
Nearly 70 million years ago, at the dawn of the age of mammals, the Cenozoic period, new animals such as lizards – and later bats, rodents, mongooses and lizards. badgers – develop a taste for badgers. But the bitter -tailed lizards also have some tricks in their curled tails.
“We know when these poisonous tail lizards separate from their family, it depends on how the mammals catch them,” said Santibáñez-López, now a professor at Western Connecticut State University. . “It has been shown that when the fat people were seen eating these bitter -tailed lizards, the bitter -tailed lizards began to build these weapons to defend themselves.”
The bitterness used by the bitch -tailed lizards to destroy the insects they ate was not far, chemically, from the bitterness which they used in their prey. head now.
“There’s a workaround,” said Prashant Sharma, a professor and UW-Madison professor of integrative biology. “They’ve got a source of genes to get at the production of toxins that can bind to the brain’s immune systems.
The breadth of new genomic data allows researchers to track developmental stages as the growth of venomous tail lizards is more vulnerable to mammals.
“We think we’ve got, through this important data set, evidence of the availability of vaccines,” said Sharma, whose work is supported by the National Science Foundation. “They range from poisonous tail lizards that have poisonous things used for captivity, to something that has poisonous things in insects and mammals, and finally to mammals that have poisonous things. -specific used as a deterrent, as a means of keeping out thieves at sea. “
Even before their creation, bitter gourds were divided into various species in most parts of the world. However, according to recent genomic studies, mammal-specific larvae have grown independently in only five members of the Buthidae family.
The differences are so strong that they can help reorganize the size of the scorpion taxonomy. They can contribute to the advancement of human health research into acidic acid compounds.
Scientists have discovered acidic compounds with medicinal properties, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. Scorpion poisoning that is extracted from tumor cells can be treated with a shiny protein and used as a “paint spray,” guiding physicians as they remove cancer cells.
The catch is that most researchers are limited to learning about certain types of bitter gourd that are suitable for them. The new research, based on the differences in venom content between venom venom species, could open up a world of venom chemistry for medical research.
“Now those labs have every library of genes that have been shown in 100 different genes, and they can teach organisms about what they have found. in their bitterness, not because they are out now., “said Sharma. “We hope to extend this form of translational biology and research into biomedical applications.”
The scorpion family tree is a form of Venom
Carlos Santibáñez-López et al, The Phylogenomics of Scorpions show the different characteristics of Scorpion Mammalian Predators and the toxicity of the Sodium Channel Mammal-Active, System Biology (2022). DOI: 10.1093 / sysbio / syac021
Presented by the University of Wisconsin-Madison
Directions: Scorpions’ threat to mammals is a new trend (2022, March 28) Retrieved 29 March 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-03-scorpion-venomous-threat -mammals-evolutionary.html
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