Scientists have identified the evolutionary egg shell

Scientists have identified the evolutionary egg shell

The cookie eggs are hatched by different women. A variety of egg species are inherited by the mother in a single specimen, the brood-parasitic cuckoo finch. Different cuckoo finch matrilines represent the eggs of different species (here, tawny-flanked and cistic red-faced) and have changed further depending on the range of the eggs ” symptoms ”in each treatment, an anti-parasite treatment will help. parents welcome to see their own children. Found by Claire N. Spottiswoode

As more and more people prepare to open their Easter eggs, scientists have solved one of the most common misconceptions of the species, a deceptive egg poisoning two million years in the making. Their experience shows that the victims of this deception are available.

All over the world, many birds meet parental requirements by placing their eggs in nests of other species. This type of lifestyle, called “brood parasitism”, has many benefits but also presents risks such as converting other species to accept a foreign egg. Most brands accomplish this by comparing the colors and flavors of their host’s fruits, but some use it to maintain different host species for all the fruits.

How can a brood-parasitic bird replicate the eggs of different species to trick them into feeding their young? And how do these parasitic predators give this power to their young while reproducing among birds fed by different predators?

These questions have been raised by more than a hundred scientists. Genetic research is currently being conducted by an international group led by Professor Claire Spottiswoode from the University of Cambridge’s Department of Zoology and the FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, University of Cape Town; and Professor Michael Sorenson at Boston University, made great strides, which they saw as bad news for egg producers.

The lesson, published today at PNAS, which focused on the genetics of egg mimicry in the cuckoo finch, a species that used a brood-parasitic habitat and used warbler traits throughout Africa. Research shows that female cuckoo finches inherited their ability to mimic the characteristics of their host offspring from their mothers, via the female-specific W chromosome (e.g. male-specific Y chromosome in humans).

Scientists have identified the evolutionary egg shell

Cuckoo finch and chicken host. Brood parasitism is costly for visitors because the chicken finch cuckoo demands more food when it matures, more successfully than the chickens themselves of the host parents (here zitting cisticolas ) dying of starvation. Found by Claire N. Spottiswoode

Such ‘maternal inheritance’ allows cuckoo finches to inherit faulty mimicry genes from a father bred by another host, and therefore allows different genealogies of female cuckoo finches to develop special egg mimicry of different host species. Such mimicry deceives the caring parents into admitting the parasitic egg for them before throwing it out of the nest, and is therefore critical to the success of these African birds.

But the researchers believe that this ‘genetic architecture’ of maternal inheritance could be re -enacted to delight cuckoo finches. Dr. Spottiswoode said: “In this coevolutionary war between the two, natural choice has made a double sword.

“While maternal heritage has allowed cuckoo finches to use a variety of finches, their ability to adapt to resistance changes may be delayed as their finches develop new finches. .the difference in egg color and type ‘signatures’, to help hosts separate their eggs from parasitic mimics.

Site data were collected at a research site in southern Zambia with Drs. Wenfei Tong and Drs. Gabriel Jamie from the University of Cambridge and Ailsa Green, Silky Hamama, Ian Taylor and Collins Moya from the community around Zambia. There are four different types of grass-warbler in this area that can deceive cookie birds: if the host parents do not detect and lay a parasitic egg in their nest, the young cuckoo finch is more likely to the visitors’ own stomachs, which soon die of starvation. .

The team collected DNA samples from 196 cuckoo finches from 141 nests for four grass-warbler species and learned most of them by sequencing thousands of short pieces in their genomes.

Scientists have identified the evolutionary egg shell

A red prin, a traditional species of cuckoo finch, was caught in Zambia for comparison with the help of school assistant Tom Hamusikili. Found: Claire N. Spottiswoode

As they fought with the deceivers, the grass-warblers became good fixers, rejecting seeds that differed in their color and texture, and the four species developed the ability to leave stems. ‘sign’ independently of their own products to increase their awareness. of those who commit crimes. For example, leave the eggs with a blue, white, red, or olive green cover in a variety of colors.

Cuckoo nets have not only responded by altering the mimicry of the fruits of their host species, but have also evolved to reflect the small size of some of the different species seen in the fruits. of different women in every type of hospitality. The company established the transmission of both powers through maternal inheritance, after confirming a hypothesis first proposed in 1933 by ornithologists wondering how the common cuckoo came to be in Europe. comparing the results of different types of entertainment.

What are the deceivers facing the future?

Researchers believe that cuckoo finches are facing an uphill battle because they are no longer able to reproduce the various finches developed by their family members. For example, two different lineages of mother cuckoo finch developed eggs with blue or red, as an evolutionary response to differences in their tawny-flanked prinine host, but none an indicator that they can make the right combination of pigs they need. to produce green olives that some hostesses can make.

In a previous study, Professor Spottiswoode observed the growth of fruits left by awny-flanked olive-green prunes, suggesting that this was part of a rapid evolutionary struggle. As expected, the team found that these host birds impart their anti-fraud ‘egg signature’ powers through another genetic process (bi-parental inheritance) to the victim. used by cuckoo finches.

Scientists have identified the evolutionary egg shell

Cooked eggs in the cisticola nest. Cuckoo finch eggs resemble the color and shape of the eggs of each of their host species, deceiving host parents into allowing parasitic eggs for themselves. Here her egg (left) is allowed to enter the nest of a zitting cysticola (right egg). Found by Claire N. Spottiswoode

Spottiswoode said: “Cuckoo finches are missing a strong source of evolutionary innovation and could justify the cost of this ongoing hand race. Well, and suppress the parasite’s ability to respond.

“We’ll probably see the emergence of non -alterable egg signatures that will allow cuckoo nets to adapt to other types of host… Eggs.”

The study argued that ‘selection from host finches led to cuckoo finches to alter the power of egg observation in the inherited part of the genome’ about 2 million years ago.

Deceptive birds resemble hospitable nestlings that deceive foster parents

More information:
Genetic engineering trains a host to change – parasite coevolutionary arm race, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2022). DOI: 10.1073 / pnas.2121752119

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Presented by the University of Cambridge

Directions: The scientists egg forging evolutionary puzzle (2022, April 11) was downloaded on April 11, 2022 from

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