Satellites improve the visibility of global warming gases

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14/04/2022
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As the climate crisis continues to hold, nations around the world are working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To follow suit, countries report to the UNFCCC – the body responsible for managing global climate change. While accurate and consistent reporting is important, few countries use satellite surveillance data to monitor and improve their options. Scientists have devised new ways to compare global warming gases with independent measurements taken from the atmosphere.

Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, is critical to preventing the most beneficial effects of climate change. But to determine if mitigation measures are actually meeting mitigation goals, accurate measurements of emissions are key.

Countries use the projections of action in the region to compile their global warming gas data and show progress in implementing their carbon reduction initiatives under the Paris Climate Agreement. Green gas emissions, as well as the flow of carbon dioxide between the air and the ground on the protected area, are recorded, according to land records according to IPCC guidelines.

Recent research, published at Global System Science Datadescribes the role of scientists in the ESA-supported Regional Carbon Assessment and Processes (RECCAP-2) program, which includes satellite measurements of carbon monoxide and methane, and with in-situ measurements of nitrous oxide, with a model of migration. or the flux of these cleaning gases between the surface and the atmosphere.

This ‘conversion type’ allowed the authors to determine the air release of the three cleaning gases to select the highest emission states, and the total flow of carbon dioxide over the surface. take place. The flow of land that is used to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere due to the growth of plants and trees, their release and transport across borders, and anthropogenic nature of rivers carrying carbon across borders, and the release of carbon dioxide from protected land. due to fire and other problems.

Significant differences were observed between these inversion properties and the government -owned statements.

The methane content was found to be higher using the conversion method in most government reports. In particular, emissions from oil and gas in Central Asia and the Mediterranean are higher than previously reported.

The chart above shows these differences for the Gulf states between 2000 and 2016.

Consuming 1.4 billion tons of carbon per year, the amount of global carbon emissions in protected and unmanaged lands is much higher. more than 0.3 billion tons of carbon per year is found by compiling national data.

This carbon footprint is known for low- and northern countries, such as Canada and across the European Union.

In part, the difference is explained by the carbon stored by untreated ecosystems falling outside the data reporting protocol, even when the full image is viewed from the sky.

The chart below shows these differences for Canada between 1990 and 2019.

With global warming by 1.1 ° C about the first stage of the industry, it is important that policymakers have an accurate picture of emissions at the national level. with the earth.

There are current guidelines for the collection of global warming gas reserves. For example, they are often based on augmentation, specificity of the component and fixed release factors. As a result, many exemptions, such as those from uncultivated lands, fall. Most importantly, countries are encouraged, but not required, to verify inventories against independent surveys.

In contrast, the conversion mode uses satellite data and in -depth observation to provide a complete picture of the emissions to collect in the air.

Unlike geographical guides, the conversion method captures the important elements of the season and the middle, such as drought and large wildfires, which are expected to increase in frequency and frequency. the difficulty of global warming.

Philippe Ciais, from the Université Paris-Saclay, said, “The intended use of climate change is to open the way for countries and the global community to improve review and comparison of government data to accurately reflect global emissions.

“If used frequently, this will not only improve the understanding of the financial system but will also improve the effectiveness of the mitigation policy and the success of each country in fulfilling their promises in a consistent manner. part of the Paris Climate Agreement. “

New satellite missions to be released in the coming years will provide an example of more carbon dioxide and methane emissions. ESA is developing the Copernicus Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide mission, the first to measure the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere through human activity. The mission will provide the European Union with an independent and independent source of knowledge to evaluate the effectiveness of policy processes, and to monitor their impact on decarbonising Europe and meeting emission reduction goals. Land.

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