Saturn is the sixth largest planet from the sun and the second largest planet in the solar system. That is the farthest world Earth It can be seen by the naked eye, but it is better to look at one of the most important features of the world – its rings. While the other important gases in the solar system – Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune – also rings, Saturn’s rings are very popular, earning it the nickname “Ringed Planet.”
Physical characteristics of Saturn
Saturn is a gas giant most of the hydrogen and helium. Saturn has more than 760 Earths, which is largest earth pit in the solar system, about 95 times the size of the Earth. The Ringed Planet is the smallest in thickness of all the stars, and is only smaller than water. If there was a big swim to hold, Saturn would float.
The yellow and gold cords seen in Saturn’s sky are the result of the strongest winds in the sky, able to reach 1,100 mph (1,800 km / h) around its equator, combined with heat rises from inside the earth. Saturn changes once every 10.5 hours. The Earth’s high rotation causes Saturn to rise at its equator and spread out on its poles. The earth is about 75,000 miles (120,000 kilometers) from its equator, and 68,000 miles (109,000 km) from one pole to the other.
The rings of Saturn
Galileo Galilei was the first to see Saturn’s rings in 1610, although from his telescope the rings looked like hands. Forty -five years later, in 1655, Dutch astronomer Christiaan Huygens, who owned the more powerful telescope, thought Saturn had a thinner, wider ring.
As scientists developed better instruments, they continued to learn more about the shape and function of rings. Many Saturn rings are made with billions of pieces of ice and rock, from the size of a cane to the size of a building. It is thought to be debris left over from comets, asteroids or broken moons. A 2016 study also showed rings on the corpses of dwarf planets.
The largest ring is 7,000 times the diameter of the earth. The main rings are about 30 feet (9 meters) thick, but the Cassini-Huygens steamer has been shown to have vertical features on one of the rings, with fragments collecting ridges and ridges. ridge more than 2 miles (3 km) high.
The rings are named alphabetically as they appear. The large rings, forming from the earth, are known as C, B and A. The innermost of the D ring is the weakest, although the outermost to this day, is shown. in 2009, it was too much to put one billion Earths in it. . The Cassini District, a tributary about 2,920 miles (4,700 km) wide, separates the B and A rings.
Mysterious words were found in Saturn’s rings, which were seen to form and disperse in a matter of hours. Scientists believe that these mouths were made of lightning bolts from fragments of earth made by small meteors touching rings, or electron beams from the Earth’s lightning.
Saturn’s F Ring is also a rotated model. The ring is made up of smaller rings, and the points, kinks, and shiny knots in them can give the impression that these cords are woven. The effects from asteroids and comets changed the shape of the rings.
By the end of its voyage, the Cassini spacecraft was closer to the rings than any other spacecraft. The researcher gathered the data under review, but first provided information about the color of some moons of Saturn. To the the slits between the ringsThe researcher found hard chemicals in a “rain ring” of debris falling from the rings into the air, and made new measurements of the Earth’s magnetic field, which emitted radiation. where are the electrons.
The moons of Saturn
Saturn has 62 moons. Most importantly, Titan is much larger than Mercury, and is the second largest moon in the solar system after Jupiter Ganymede (Earth’s fifth moon. very much).
Some months have serious features. Pan and Atlas are likened to flying saucers; Japheth is one side like snow and the other side black like charcoal. Enceladus presents evidence of an “ice volcano”: a hidden ocean that releases water and other material from 101 geysers seen in the southern pole of the moon. Some of these satellites, such as Prometheus and Pandora, are called shepherd moons because they are associated with orbits and keep the rings in their orbit.
Even though scientists have known for many months, Saturn was created and destroyed.
Saturn’s impact on the solar system
Although the largest planet in the solar system is after Jupiter, Saturn’s gravitational pull has contributed to the impact of our solar system. He may have helped throw Neptune and Uranus out (opens on new page). Like Jupiter, it may have been confined to debris in the inner stars as early as the history of the system.
Scientists are learning about how gas galaxies work, and running observations on the formation of the solar system to understand how Jupiter, Saturn, and other stars work. beyond our solar system. A 2017 study showed that Saturn, much larger than Jupiter, will orbit dangerous asteroids from Earth.
Research & exploration
The first spacecraft to reach Saturn was the Pioneer 11 in 1979, flying 13,700 miles (22,000 km) of the Ringed Planet. Images from the plane allowed astronomers to see two outer rings of the Earth, as well as the presence of a strong magnetic field. The Voyager spacecraft helped astronomers see the Earth’s rings made of thin ringlets. The creator returned the data that led to the discovery of Saturn’s three moons.
The Cassini spacecraft, a Saturn orbiter, is the largest spacecraft ever built. He has 6 tons (5.4 metric tons). He helped detect the plumes on the icy moon of Enceladus, and took the Huygens probe, which flew into Titan’s skies and landed safely on his skin.
After ten years of observation, Cassini has returned critical data about the Ringed Planet and its moons, as well as a re -enactment of the original film “Blue Dot Cover.” , capturing Earth after Saturn, in 2013. The mission ended in September. 2017 when Cassini, low in fuel, was released to Saturn to avoid a short period of time when the ship would capsize and pollute a living space.
Although no future missions have been planned for Saturn, scientists have decided to find the ice moon Enceladus or Titan. In 2019, NASA announced there that it plans to launch their rotorcraft-lander Dragonfly in 2026 and reach Titan in 2034. Dragonfly will search for the chemical building block for life on Titan using his equipment on board, with a large spectrometer.
Learn more about Saturn by watching NASA’S Web page (opens on new page). You can read more about Voyager’s voyages to Saturn at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (opens on new page). For an in -depth look at the Saturn system and Earth history, see “The Saturn System Through The Eyes Of Cassini (opens on new page)“by NASA.
James Pollack, “The Rings of Saturn”, Space Scientific Ideas, Volume 18, October 1975, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00350197 (opens on new page)
Linda Splinker, “Cassini-Huygens exploration of the Saturn system: 13 years of knowledge”, science, Volume 364, June 2019, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aat3760 (opens on new page)
European Space Agency (ESA), “Information about Saturn (opens on new page)“, January 2022.
Thierry Fouchet et al, “Saturn: Composition and Chemistry”, Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, Springer, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9217-6_5 (opens on new page)
Erik Asphaug and Andreas Reufer, “Late origin of the Saturn system”, Icarus, Volume 223, March 2013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2012.12.009 (opens on new page)