Mycobacteria are a group of pathogenic bacteria that cause diseases such as leprosy and fungal infections in humans. Now, a new study by scientists at the University of Hiroshima has found that mycobacteria are linked to red blood cells in areas of the neck, a relationship that has escaped scientific knowledge for 140 years. infection of the original body.
The new study, published March 16 at Microbiology Spectrumelucidates the relationship of mycobacteria with red blood cells and its role in gastrointestinal disease.
Detection of mycobacteria
In 1882, German historian Robert Koch diagnosed the disease that causes tuberculosis (TB)- a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. His work confirmed the early evidence of French physician Jean-Antoine Villemin that the disease could be treated. Although the use of streptomycin to treat TB disease would take another 65 years, Koch’s discovery of the bacterial infection stuck the path to treatment.
M. tuberculosis and other mycobacteria infected with tuberculosis are now known to live in macrophages – white bacteria that kill and kill pathogens. Mycobacteria search for blood and sputum that are ingested by infected people. According to lead lecturer and associate professor Yukiko Nishiuchi, “Pathogenic mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. Hominissuis (MAH), and Mycobacterium intracellulare, cause pulmonary diseases in general. he intracellular parasites or macrophages. ” Mycobacteria grow in macrophages.
Red blood cells, although found in the sputum of cancer patients, have not been properly studied as the disease progresses.
Investigating the role of red blood cells
The researchers obtained lung tissue samples from five mice infected with two types of Mycobacteria – M. avium and M. intracellulare – and from a human patient with MAH infection. Microscopic examination showed that red cells with mycobacteria were also found in the capillary vessels and granulomas (clusters of immune cells) of rats and human lung tissue.
To evaluate the relationship of mycobacteria to human red blood cells, the researchers looked at their growth in the absence of blood. They found that the MAH increased in front of the red blood cells, increasing the speed depending on the movement of the blood. They grow faster than MAH in macrophages. “These results indicate that erythrocytes stimulated the vigorous growth of MAH,” Nishiuchi said.
In addition, the study found that macrophages, which are commonly thought to be mycobacteria, are more likely to bind red blood cells with infected MAH. The binding of MAH to the red blood cells may be the reason why energy is released in the form of ATP, which then stimulates macrophages to kill cancer cells.
Consequences for human health
Evidence has been shown that pathogenic mycobacteria infect human red blood cells, and then increase the risk of proliferation. Mycobacteria were first found outside of macrophages in infected areas; Recent data suggest that the presence of such extracellular mycobacteria may be due to contact with red blood cells.
Although red blood cells are well known for their role in carrying oxygen between the lungs and tissues, they also play two roles in mycobacterial diseases. They act to prevent disease by capturing pathogens and transmitting them to macrophages in the liver and spleen to destroy them. This study suggests that red blood cells can be treated as receptors for mycobacteria.
The nature of these processes determines the outcome of a disease. If the immune system works well, TB or other mycobacterial diseases can be treated. However, red blood cells that are affected by the invasion of mycobacteria can help spread them throughout the body.
The next steps
The authors hope to identify the adhesion factor in mycobacteria that can lead to red blood cells. The adhesive machine can capture signals of how mycobacteria, normally in macrophages, grow outside of cells. According to Nishiuchi, “Our research will change the general notion that mycobacteria grow intracellularly.” Their goal is to assist in the development of new drugs by understanding how pathogenic mycobacteria drive immune systems to propagate.
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Yukiko Nishiuchi et al, Direct Interaction with Erythrocytes Enhances the Body Growth of Pathogenic Mycobacteria, Microbiology Spectrum (2022). DOI: 10.1128 / spectrum.02454-21
Presented by Hiroshima University
Directions: Pathogenic diseases that cause neck infections on red blood cells (2022, March 30) Retrieved 30 March 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-03-pathogenic-bacteria -lung-diseases-hitchhike.html
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