This article was originally published on The Conversation. (opens on new page) The book donated the article to Space.com Soundtracks: Op-Ed & Insights.
Peter Tuthill (opens on new page)Astrophysicist, University of Sydney
Barnaby Norris (opens on new page)researcher, University of Sydney
How do hotels work? For many years, scientists thought they understood this process by studying an example we had: our solar system.
However, the discovery of galaxies around distant stars in the 1990s made the picture more difficult than we knew it.
In further research (opens on new page)we have seen a hot gas giant like Jupiter orbit a star about 500 light -years from Earth.
This little baby of the world in the process, pulling the object from a huge pile of dust and gas that swirled around his childhood, opened the window to the mysteries that had engulfed him. to the stars for years.
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A scientific victory?
Scientific research into the origin of the Earth and the other stars of our solar system began in the mid -1700s.
Building on the work of the Swedish thinker Emanuel Swedenborg, the famous German philosopher Immanuel Kant believed that the sun and its small planetary family would grow from a large, pre -circular universe; Kant is called “Urnebel,” German for nebula.
This idea was refined by the French polymath Pierre Laplace, and there were many more additions and revisions, but new scientists thought it was on the right track. A new descendant of Kant’s hypothesis, filled with more detailed information, can explain most of the observed features of our solar system.
We can run computer simulations with all the necessary configurations, and come out with a beautiful digital copy of our solar system. It will have the right hotel types in the right neighborhoods that wrap around the clock setting, just like the real thing.
This model is a winning combination of spins from geography, chemistry, physics and astronomy, and the basics seem to be covered. So far, that is, astronomers have been at odds with the stars outside our solar system.
Beyond the solar system
When the first systems of stars orbiting distant stars were discovered in the mid -1990s, controversy and concern soon arose. The new stars don’t fit the model: the rest of the cosmos, it turns out, doesn’t care much about what’s going on here around our little day.
Since then, there have been many different ways to create a world system. Among the thousands of galaxies that orbit other stars that add to our list, the solar system of stars is beginning to look different.
Despite this, one of the real physical parts of the Earth’s crust that we believe is responsible for creating giant gassy planets like Jupiter and Saturn has stood the test of time: the idea of ”core accretion.”
The expansion begins with gases and microscopic dust particles that are thought to enter Kant’s pre -existing world (similar to that of a flat spinning disk with a baby star at the center). The debris is also collected into large particles, which are then pebbled, rocks, and climbed up in a cascade to the stars or “planetesimals.”
When a lump of that kind is large, it can be very precise. The gravity now helps to quickly pull the embryonic earth away from the gas, dust and other particles, clearing its orbital pathway and sculpting a circular space in the disk.
It is one of the winning signs for new astronomy that the kinds of “disk gaps” predicted by current theory and studied around the world will be clearly identified.
It’s a big hit
However, there are some things that cannot be explained by core accretion. Large stars were seen circling from their host stars, outside of the cold.
According to basic accretion theory, such hotels should not be occupied. They are far away, where communities move slowly to run the earth building industry.
A new “gravitational collapse” model has been developed to describe these unexpected large stars. (opens on new page). The basic idea is that if the primordial disk itself is large enough, the whole thing can become unstable and collapse in order to quickly create stars in a massive crunch.
This new image may seem to be able to explain the outer stars, but because the specimens are so old (usually billions of years old) this concept remains – an idea. Until now.
A world is born
Last year, we and our colleagues observed a vast universe, in the process of being formed, around a star about 500 light -years from Earth.
This star named AB Aurigae is famous in the constellations (opens on new page) for the beautiful, hard, sleek complexion that surrounds her.
The bumps and waves seen in this disk (and others like it) are similar to what would detect if gravity was falling. But so far, evidence of a global phenomenon has been lost.
This newly discovered earth – called AB Aurigae b – is embedded in a thick layer of dust and gas, amidst the vibrations and waves that signal the collapse of by gravity. The Earth is about 93 feet away from its star as Earth is from the sun, far beyond the earth where the principle of accretion can explain its formation.
This information provides strong evidence for another concept of gravity collapse.
Sightings from the Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and the Hubble Space Telescope.
Accompanied by energy from a violent and rapid process, the earth is heated to glow (around 2000 degrees Celsius). This radiance is what gives the face of the earth. At the same time, gas and dust are visible around the earth illuminated by the blue light of the central star AB Aurigae.
Bigger phones are better
This new information provides an important piece of the world -building puzzle, but it does not solve the problem.
As our telescopes grow and our spectacles become more advanced, we hope to see more and more surveillance systems captured at all stages of their development, as well as full -scale navigation systems. Like the Earth.
And in the end, we can hope to answer the big questions: how did all the different and different types of planetary systems come into being in the middle of the galaxy, and how do these? new world, and what our tiny solar system looks like in them. ?
This article is republished The Conversation (opens on new page) under the Creative Commons license. Read to Original article (opens on new page).
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