How does the phone “determine” what kind of phone it will be? The question of “cell fate” has been debated for ten years now, especially in the context of stem cell biology, but there are still gaps in our knowledge. For example, multicellular structures are made up of different cell types that play specific roles, even though they all work together to maintain the entire body.
At the same time, some phone types can switch between different functions. A good example is the fibroblasts of the skin, which form the dermis, between the upper layer of the epidermis and the lower layer of fat. Fibroblasts can take a variety of techniques to help repair injuries, repair the extracellular matrix, or cause fibrosis.
This complex system of cellular impact has attracted a lot of research, which has focused heavily on external signals from the microenvironment of the cell. In comparison, very little work is done on the “in” processes in the phone to give its function.
A group of scientists, led by professors Gioele La Manno and Giovanni D’Angelo at EPFL’s School of Life Sciences now decided for the first time that some of the participants and the end result of a cell is the production of lipids – fat molecules.
In creating skin fibroblasts, the researchers combined two methods to separate the cells into “profiles” that make up the lipid: large -scale photographic imaging, which allowed them to see specific lipid delivery into each cell, as well as single mRNA distribution, is allowed. determine the gene expression history of each fibroblast – a type of ID card of what we call a “transcriptome” – and assign each cell to a transcriptional subpopulation.
The first thing the study showed was the ability of dermal fibroblasts to express multiple lipid groups, or “lipid compositional states”, which researchers call “lipotypes”.
“Telephone states are central to the process of telecommuting where the state changes before committing,” the authors write.
But there is a caveat: each lipotype was searched for specific transcriptional subpopulations in vitro and fibroblasts from different skin layers in vivo.
The question now is what markers can we use to identify different lipotypes. Given their association with transcriptional fibroblasts, researchers have begun to isolate metabolic pathways that can account for this association.
They found that the main components of the composing states were a family of fat molecules called “sphingolipids”. Named after the sphinx history, sphingolipids engage in cell-to-cell communication, and protect the outer surface of the cell by forming barriers on its membrane.
Now, the researchers have discovered an important piece of information: different lipotypes that modulate the different responses that cells receive to external stimuli from their microenvironment “push” them into the cells. other end cell – even if the first two cells are similar. In fact, the researchers found, it is possible to rearrange the fate of a cell by simply manipulating its sphingolipid master.
In the last part of the study, the team found that lipid synthesis and signaling pathways are linked to specific circuits, which are the vehicles that detect the difference between metabolism and metabolism. gene transcription among fibroblasts.
The root of the picture here is fibroblast growth factor, or FGF2, a signaling protein that is involved in processes, such as embryonic growth, cell growth, morphogenesis, and repair. Flesh development, and growth and development. In the context of this study, sphingolipids have been shown to regulate FGF2 signaling by using two types of sphingolipids as well as negative regulators.
“We uncovered an unexpected relationship between lipidomes and transcriptomes in each cell,” the authors write, referring to the full history of lipid activity. “Lipidome remodeling can act as a primary driver in the formation of a cell identity, and because of the lipid metabolic trajectories of each cell we can understand about the Important mechanism of cell fate decision.Lipids in cell fate decision and add a new regulator to the self -regulation of multicellular systems. “
The research is published in Science.
The unintended role of fat in the formation of stem cells
Laura Capolupo et al, Sphingolipids Control Dermal Fibroblast Heterogeneity, Science (2022). DOI: 10.1126 / science.abh1623. www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abh1623
Presented by Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Directions: From fat cell to fat cell (2022, April 14) Retrieved 15 April 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-04-cell-fat-fate.html
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