Different lifestyles may have developed earlier than previously thought

Different lifestyles may have developed earlier than previously thought

The large-diameter pectinate branches and similar filaments are composed of red hematite, some with coils, tubes and various types of hematite spheroids. These are the oldest microfossils on Earth, that live on the surface near hydrothermal vents, and they convert iron, sulfur and carbon dioxide. ʻO Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt, Quebec, Canada. Found: Dominic Papineau

Microbial life was found on Earth about 3.75 billion years ago, according to a new study led by UCL researchers comparing common knowledge when life began. .

For the tutorial, published at Scientific advances, the research team analyzed a hand rock from Quebec, Canada, estimated to be between 3.75 and 4.28 billion years old. In the first place so so paper, the team found small filaments, lumps and tubes in the rock formed by bacteria.

However, most scientists do not accept that these buildings – about 300 million years older than what is accepted as the first symbol of ancient life – are a source of life.

Now, after a thorough evaluation of the stone, the team found a much larger and more difficult building – a tree with different branches on one side and nearly a centimeter long – and the hundreds of sintered circles, or ellipsoids, on the side of the pipes and filaments.

The researchers said that although some of the buildings were built as a result of chemical reactions, the “tree-like” tree with the same members was a real living thing, because no house was built on the ground. only chemistry known as such. .

Different lifestyles may have developed earlier than previously thought

Layer-deflecting red concretion of hemorrhagic chert (an iron-rich and silica-liquid rock), in tubular and filamentous microfossils. This group, called jasper, has a green volcanic rock on the north side and is shown to be hydrothermal water precipitates on the floor. ʻO Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt, Quebec, Canada. A quarter of a man for the scale. Eaten: D. Papineau.

The company also provides information on how they receive their energy in various ways. They found mineralized chemical products in the rock that were similar to ancient microbes that lived from iron, sulfur and carbon dioxide and light through a non -oxygenated photosynthesis process.

These new findings, according to the researchers, show how microbial life existed on the primordial earth, about 300 million years after the earth was formed.

The lead author, Dr. Dominic Papineau (UCL Earth Science, UCL London Center for Nanotechnology, Center for Planetary Sciences and China University of Geosciences) said: “Using a variety of lines of evidence, our research on bacterial species shows strong evidence. difference on Earth between 3.75 and 3.75. 4.28 billion years ago. ”

“That is, life could have started at least 300 million years after the foundation of the Earth.

“This knowledge has consequences for being able to survive outdoors.







Three-dimensional micro-CT reproduction of two coiled filaments treated with hematite. (The colors red and green indicate hematite in different ways.) This is from a column made from a jasper nodule at the foundation of the Nuvvuagittuq iron ore. Found by: Francesco Iacoviello

For the study, researchers looked at rocks from Quebec’s Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt (NSB) by Drs. The Papineau was collected in 2008. The NSB, a section of the seabed, contains one of the oldest sedimentary rocks found on Earth, believed to be located near a system of rocks. hydrothermal vent, where the cracks of the fish are melted into the iron ore. by the magma.

The research team cut the rock into pieces as thick as paper (100 microns) in order to visualize small structures such as limestone, made of haematite, a type of of iron or scrap, bound with quartz. These diamond -cut pieces of rock are more than twice the thickness of the original pieces that the researchers cut, allowing the team to see the larger haematite structures in them. .

They compared homes and manufacturers to new fossil fuels and iron-oxidizing bacteria in close proximity to hydrothermal vent systems today. They have modern features such as twisted filaments, various branches, and irregular ellipsoids, for example, near the Loihi volcano under the sea near Hawaiʻi. and other wind systems in the Arctic and Indian Oceans.

As with the analysis of rock types under optical and Raman microscopes (measuring the scattering of light), the research team re -created the rock fragments using a supercomputer that edited thousands of images from two high -resolution digital cameras. The first technology is micro-CT, or microtomography, which uses X-rays to look for hematite in rocks. The second is the ionized ion beam, which cuts into small rock fragments – 200 nanometers -thick, with an electron microscope attached to take an image between each fragment.

Both technologies created groups of images that were used to create 3-D images of different objects. The 3-D models then allowed the researchers to confirm that the haematite filaments are wavy and twisted, and found in natural carbon, which are similar to modern iron-eating microbes.

Different lifestyles may have developed earlier than previously thought

Dr. Dominic Papineau holds a sample of the stone, estimated to be 4.28 billion years old. Available: UCL / FILMBRIGHT

In their conclusions, the group concluded that haematite buildings could not have been constructed by metamorphism over billions of years, suggesting that conservation is better. The formation of structures in quartz is much less metamorphism. ) than coarser quartz (found in further metamorphism).

The researchers also looked at the levels of rare earth elements in the gemstone, and found that their levels were similar to those of ancient rocks. This confirmed that the fish stocks were as old as the surrounding volcanic rocks, not young lizards as some might think.

Prior to this discovery, the oldest known fossils were discovered in Western Australia and dated to 3.46 billion years, although some scientists have disputed their status as fossils, arguing. they are lifeless teachers.


4 billion years: The world’s oldest fossils have been discovered


More information:
Dominic Papineau, the first microbial communities in the world’s oldest hydrothermal jasper, Scientific advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126 / sciadv.abm2296. www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abm2296

Matthew S. Dodd et al, A report on the early existence of Earth’s oldest hot spring. so so (2017). DOI: 10.1038 / nature21377

Presented by University College London

Directions: Different lifestyles may have evolved earlier than previously thought (2022, April 13) Retrieved 13 April 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-04-diverse -life-evolved-earlier-previously.html

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