Are male independent opinions ‘human’ or ‘human’? More research on masculinity can be seen in the billions of words

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The meaning of a “man” or “human being”, as he defined it, is not independent of the way we use these words. In fact, we want to put men first when it comes to people in general, suggests a new study by a team of psychology and linguistics researchers.

The information, reported in the journal Scientific advancesis based on the analysis of more than 630 billion words translated from web pages, using sophisticated tools to measure the meaning of the words in relation to the web. used by millions of people.

“A lot of different things have been learned, such as how to link ‘science’ to men more than women, but the practice is a little less in the way we see science. people, ”said April Bailey, a postdoctoral researcher in New York University’s Department of Psychology and the paper’s lead author.

“Our knowledge shows that when it comes to using male -dominated terms, there are more males than females,” added Adina Williams, a research scientist at Meta AI and a graduate graduate of the NYU doctoral program in linguistics.

Bias at that fundamental level – our word choice – can result, the researchers found.

“The perception of‘ people ’is the basis of a lot of public decision -making and decision -making,” said Andrei Cimpian, a professor in the Department of Psychology at New York University and senior author. of the paper. “Because men and women are each about half of the nature, creating men in our collective sense of a‘ man ’will do no harm to women. in decisions on this subject. “

The summary of the upcoming Science Advances paper, “Based on Billions of Words on the Interior, PEOPLE = MEN”. Edited: April H. Bailey

The research team looked at the meaning of words in terms of how they were used by people. Specifically, the team learned how we use the words to describe the meaning of “man” and his male counterparts, “female” and “male.”

To test whether we think more often of men than women when writing about “men,” the team used intelligent algorithms to study the nature of sex. words related to the usage, taken from a collection of words. by the non-profit Common Crawl in May 2017. This database included more than 630 billion English words most of which are found on about three billion web pages.

The researchers considered how the meaning of the word was related to language and usage. For example, if you hear, “Every morning, Joe boils water in a kettle for tea,” you might think that “balak” is very similar to “kettle.” , “Although” balak “is unfamiliar, because the words on the page are” balak “. “(” tea, “” boil, “or” water “) is often associated with” kettle. “

To the Scientific advances paper, the researchers investigated, in three studies, the meaning of “person” and related terms (e.g., “people”) by considering related terms – the linguistic context .

In the first study, they compared the similarity of meaning (inferred via linguistic context) between words for men (e.g., “some”) and words for men (e.g., “he”. and “male”) in the similarity of meaning between the words. for men and words for women (e.g., “he” and “woman”).

They knew that the words were used in the same way for people, and so they felt more alike, words for men than words for women – and at the statistical limit. On the other hand, the concept of “man” with the concept of “man” is more common than the concept of “woman” in the words studied.

In the second lesson, instead of looking at words for people, the group looked at words that show similarities between these concepts – that is, words for always usually describe the nature of the people. They compared hundreds of terms identified in previous research as common descriptions of people (e.g., “extroverted,” “analytical,” and “superstitious”) to word lists. for both women and men from the initial research of the paper.

They found that the meanings of these descriptive terms in the second lesson were more similar to the meanings of the terms for men than the meanings of the terms for women, with a significant difference between the terms. two. That is, common words that describe the nature of the people (for example, “extroverted”) another Words are more similar for men than words for women.

In a third study, researchers learned how to use the words—An ideal place to search based on prior information. Specifically, if the collective concept of “man” is related to the concept of “man” rather than the concept of “woman,” then the words can describe the actions of men and the things that are done to them. they (e.g., “love,” “annoy”) have more similar meanings of words to men than words to describe women.

In this study, they compared similarity between more than 250 words that describe the actions people take (e.g., “encourage,” “laugh,” and “threaten. “) and terms for men vs. Speaks for women.

As in the second study, which focused on common words that describe the nature of people, words that describe how people work (e.g., “run”) were used in common with the words. for men rather than words for women – it’s different. something new.

The word ‘Rough’ is used as a trill in languages ​​around the world

More information:
April H. Bailey, Based on billions of words on the web, PEOPLE = MEN, Scientific advances (2022). DOI: 10.1126 / sciadv.abm2463.

Presented by New York University

Directions: Are male liberties ‘human’ or ‘human’? A new study of male sexuality was found by looking at billions of words (2022, April 1) retrieved on April 1, 2022 from -person-people-gender-neutral-concepts-male.html

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