3 ways how DNA testing is necessary to treat cancer

The disease is caused by changes in DNA – genetic material that controls cell function. In most cases, cancer is the result of non -separation of cells due to DNA damage. Some of these changes can be downloaded, but others can be modified.

Each type of cancer can have a unique set of genetic mutations. Specific changes to DNA can be the goals of medicine for every individual. Tumor DNA testing or genetic profiling of the cancer patient is always necessary to determine the specific changes in DNA that have led to carcinogenesis.

DNA sequencing and analysis of a sample from a patient’s tumor entails determining the arrangement of the four factors– A, T, G, and C. Human cells are located at about 6 billion bases, approximately 6 billion bases. 6 gigabytes of data. Edits, translations, and changes to copyrights may be made.

DNA Sequencing For Cancer

1. Determining if there are any changes observed in a model for cancer management

Not every genetic abnormality leads to cancer. However, different changes can indicate different types of cancer. For example, there are alterations in the EGFR gene in some small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Today, a group of drugs are available to counteract the effects of the EGFR gene mutation on selection. Therefore, people diagnosed with NSCLC can have their tumor DNA recorded to see if they have the EGFR mutation so they can benefit from treatment.

At elite disease research institutes and medical centers such as Dana Farber, genetic profiling is part of the Profile program. Under this diagnostic procedure, the patient’s DNA sample is checked for thousands of known mutations and malignancies that are often associated with different types of cancer.

The results of the process and DNA tumor screening often show patients who are eligible for the prescribed medication or over -the -counter medications or newer therapies. as part of clinical trials. For example, as part of a new study at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), scientists found that 37% of samples among 10,000 tumor biopsies had one or more mutations that could be corrected. Treated with prescription and over -the -counter medications.

2. Demystifying the development of drug / drug resistance in post-treatment patient systems

At the same time, major sequencing programs such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) receive data from thousands of randomized controlled trials (WES). Comparative studies based on data from the TCGA can be used to observe how patients gradually change their genetic makeup.

In addition, process comparison data from pre- and post -treatment patients can provide health care workers and researchers with insight into how certain types of illnesses can be treated. in care. Explaining how the drug is resistant to specific chronic diseases can help researchers decide on alternative and more effective treatment options.

For example, researchers at the Center for the Prevention of Blood Cancer in Dana Farber collected tissue samples from people with precursor conditions that develop into multiple myeloma and other hematological diseases. The genetic engineering of these samples could help researchers understand the development of these diseases and develop drugs that can stop the progression of the disease at an early stage.

Also, read about the symptoms, causes, conditions and treatment

3. Identification of genomic biomarkers and prediction of the usefulness of immunotherapy for various chronic diseases

Some studies have shown the ability to treat certain types of diseases using checkpoint agents in the immune system. Immunotherapy is widely used in the treatment of pre -existing and recurrent types of chronic diseases. These studies identify genomic biomarkers and their different characteristics in health vs. cancer.

For example, over-activation of anti-PD-1 / PF-1 genes is found in various types of cancer such as lymphoma. On the other hand, lung cancer, melanoma, and MSI-positive colorectal cancer show a high mutation load across the entire genome. The treatment of certain types of cancer with the use of immunotherapy presents different levels of efficacy.

Alterations in HLA signals and the INF-gamma pathway are often associated with resistance to immunotherapy. WES and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) describe DNA sequences in clinical trials that may be affected by immunotherapy. New technologies and DNA sequencing will determine neoantigen markers and the quality and quantity of immune cells from tumor specimens (pre-treated and post-treated) and immune cells used in immunotherapy.

Take a look at our list of the best Cancer hospitals in India.

Why isn’t the impact of DNA sequencing and screening on cancer cells as broad as one might think?

Traditional medicine and medications for various types of diseases, including chemotherapeutic drugs, have improved significantly in recent years. However, each cancer is different. Therefore, everyone needs to get the right treatment for any symptoms or changes in their illness.

The cost of DNA sequencing and screening has decreased significantly in recent years. However, it is not as expensive as most people think. As a result, the genomic distribution of cancer is limited, and the technology is currently available to a small number of elite research and cancer centers in the world, including Dana-Farber, MSKCC, Stanford Cancer Institute, and David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer. Research at MIT.

Today, very few patients have the genomic sequence of their cancer type. As a result, very few have access to personalized medicine and prescription medicine.

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